The most important manganese ores are the manganite, romanechite, oxides pyrolusite, and the carbonate ore rhodochrosite. We usually find rhodonite and braunite ores with oxides. Only the manganese ores which contain greater than 35% manganese are commercially exploitable. Manganese is the 12th most abundant element throughout the Earth's crust. About 80% of the manganese ores are found in South Africa, the other manganese sources are widely distributed in Australia, India, China, Gabon, Ukraine, and Brazil.
The mining of manganese ores usually takes place in open pits. Some manganese ores are upgraded by washing equipment, that is using water to wash or scrub additional impurities from manganese ore. The ores after washing move to primary crushing machines and secondary crushing machines for reduction into fine particles. The most important manganese crushers are jaw crusher, cone crusher, vertical shaft crusher. Screening is usually after ore crushing to separate crushed ores of different size. The fine particles move to re-election process, while the larger manganese particles will be convoyed to ore crushers for further crushing.
Manganese ore re-election is adopted to sort coarser particles of manganese ore. re-election is very simple, widely used in ore dressing plant.
High intensity magnetic separation
The magnetic separation is easy to be controlled, and widely used for a variety of manganese ores dressing process. Manganese is a weak magnetic mineral, with a susceptibility of X = 10 * 10 -6 ~ 600 * 10 - 6 cm 3 / g. it can be recovered by strong magnetic field.
Usually, manganese plant produces pure manganese by hydrometallurgical and electrolytic process, and produces ferromanganese and silicomanganese by the smelting of manganese ores in an electric furnace.
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